|HARDNESS (calcium & magnesium)
||Scale in pipes and water heaters; cause "soap curd" on fixtures, tile, dishes & laundry; low sudsing characteristics.
||Removal by Ion exchange softener.
||Causes discolored water; red, brown, orange or black stains on fixtures, appliances and laundry; dark scal in pipes and water heaters.
||Low level (2ppm) removal by ion exchange softener when hardness is also present; best removed by oxidizing iron filter, aeration and/or chlorination followed by filtration in some cases.
|IRON/MANGANESE/ SULFER BACTERIA
||Same general effects as above, plus slimy deposits that form in pumps, pipes, softeners and toilet tanks.
||Low level removal possible by oxidizing iron filter, best removed by chlorination followed by filtration.
|HYDROGEN SULFIDE GAS
||Foul rotten-egg odor, corrosion to plumbing; tarnishes silver and stains fixtures and laundry; ruins the taste of foods and beverages.
||Best removed by aeration, scrubbing & filtration; also removed by oxidizing filters or chlorination followed by filtration.
||Suspended matter in water; examples include mud, clag, silt and sand; can ruin seats, seals and moving parts in appliances.
||Removal by backwashing sediment filters; extra fine treatment utilizing sediment cartridge elements.
|ACID WATER (low pH)
||Corrosive water attacks piping and other metals, red and/or green staining of fixtures and laundry.
||Best corrected by neutralizing filters or soda ash feeding.
|TASTE/ODOR/COLOR (organic matter)
||Makes water unpalatable; can cause staining.
||Depending on the nature of contaminant, aeration followed by filtration; carbon filtration chlorination followed by filtration.
||Can impart an "iced tea" color water; causes light staining, can affect taste of foods & beverages.
||Removal by special Ion exchange or oxidizing agents & filtration.
||Can cause serious desease & intestinal disorders.
||Chlorination & filtration is most widely practiced; iodination, ozonation & ultraviolet treatment are used to a lesser degree.
|ORGANIC HALIDES (e.g. Herbicides & Pesticides)
||Can cause serious desease and/or poisoning.
||Most are readily removed by absorption with carbon filters; some can be removed by hydrolysis & oxidation.
|NITRATES/CHLORIDES & SULFATES
||Can cause health-related problems if quantities are high.
||Removal +A1:C12by special ion exchange, deionization process or reverse osmosis.